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Reference Vertical distribution and phylogenetic characterization of marine planktonic Archaea in the Santa Barbara Channel. Massana R, Murray AE, Preston CM, DeLong EF. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1997.
Abstract Newly described phylogenetic lineages within the domain Archaea have recently been found to be significant components of marine picoplankton assemblages. To better understand the ecology of these microorganisms, we investigated the relative abundance, distribution, and phylogenetic composition of Archaea in the Santa Barbara Channel. Significant amounts of archaeal rRNA and rDNA (genes coding for rRNA) were detected in all samples analyzed. The relative abundance of archaeal rRNA as measured by quantitative oligonucleotide hybridization experiments was low in surface waters but reached higher values (20 to 30% of prokaryotic rRNA) at depths below 100 m. Probes were developed for the two major groups of marine Archaea detected. rRNA originating from the euryarchaeal group (group II) was most abundant in surface waters, whereas rRNA from the crenarchaeal group (group I) dominated at depth. Clone libraries of PCR-amplified archaeal rRNA genes were constructed with samples from 0 and 200 m deep. Screening of libraries by hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes, as well as subsequent sequencing of the cloned genes, indicated that virtually all archaeal rDNA clones recovered belonged to one of the two groups. The recovery of cloned rDNA sequence types in depth profiles exhibited the same trends as were observed in quantitative rRNA hybridization experiments. One representative of each of 18 distinct restriction fragment length polymorphism types was partially sequenced. Recovered sequences spanned most of the previously reported phylogenetic diversity detected in planktonic crenarchaeal and euryarchaeal groups. Several rDNA sequences appeared to be harbored in archaeal types which are widely distributed in marine coastal waters. In total, data suggest that marine planktonic crenarchaea and euryarchaea of temperate coastal habitats thrive in different zones of the water column. The relative rRNA abundance of the crenarchaeal group suggests that its members constitute a significant fraction of the prokaryotic biomass in subsurface coastal waters.
Pubmed ID 8979338